Binding of TS1, an anti-keratin 8 antibody, in small-cell lung cancer after 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate treatment: a histological study in xenografted mice
1 Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Karlstad University, 651 88 Karlstad, Sweden
2 Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Göteborg, Sweden
EJNMMI Research 2011, 1:19 doi:10.1186/2191-219X-1-19Published: 26 August 2011
Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy characterised by an early relapse, a tendency towards drug resistance, and a high incidence of metastasis. SCLC cells are of neuroendocrine origin and express high levels of somatostatin receptors; therefore, future treatment might involve targeting tumours with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This therapy induces abundant necrotic patches that contain exposed keratins; thus, keratin 8, which is one of the most abundant cytoskeletal proteins may represent an interesting secondary target for SCLC. This study aimed to investigate the effects of177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate and the binding of the monoclonal anti-keratin 8 antibody, TS1, in vitro in treated SCLC- and midgut-xenografted mouse models.
NCI-H69- and GOT1-xenotransplanted mice were treated with three doses of 30 MBq177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate administered 24 h apart. Mice xenotransplanted with NCI-H69 were sacrificed 1, 5, 12, 20 and 150 days post-injection or when the tumour had regrown to its original size. GOT1-xenotransplanted mice were sacrificed 3 days post-injection. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate TS1 staining in tumours and in seven human biopsies of primary SCLC from pulmonary bronchi. Central cell density and nucleus size were determined in NCI-H69 sections.
Twelve days after177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate treatment, the SCLC xenograft response was extensive. Twenty days after treatment, one of three analysed tumours displayed complete remission. The other two tumours showed 1/4 the cell density of untreated controls and cell nuclei were about three times larger than those of untreated controls. At 150 days after treatment, one of four mice exhibited complete remission. Treated tumours displayed increased TS1 antibody accumulation and high TS1 binding in necrotic patches. All seven human SCLC biopsies displayed necrotic areas with TS1 staining.
Radiation treatment with three injections of 30 MBq177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate had pronounced effects on tumour cell density and cell nuclei, which indicated mitotic catastrophe. Despite these anti-tumour effects, two of three SCLC tumours recurred. Further studies should investigate the nature of tumour cell survival and develop more effective treatments. High TS1 accumulation in tumour sections in vitro after177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate treatment indicated that TS1 might represent a promising secondary therapeutic strategy.